N.N. Nazarov*, S.V. Kopytov**
Perm State University, Perm, 614990 Russia
E-mail: *email@example.com, **firstname.lastname@example.org
Received January 17, 2020
Full text PDF
For citation: Nazarov N.N., Kopytov S.V. Stages of river network formation of the Upper Kama River basin in the Pleistocene. Uchenye Zapiski Kazanskogo Universiteta. Seriya Estestvennye Nauki, 2020, vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 180–200. doi: 10.26907/2542-064X.2020.1.180-200. (In Russian)
River network formation in the northeast part of the East European Plain was discussed. The relevance of the study is due to a lack of knowledge about the functioning and development of the Upper Kama River basin in the Pleistocene. Most of the available data quite schematically describe the scope and stages of the change in the direction of development of channel processes in space and time.
The decoding of satellite images from the Landsat-8 OLI, SPOT-5 satellite for the period of 2014–2018 and the ESRI ArcGIS World Imagery open mapping service data were used as the main method for studying the structural features of the river network, meso- and microrelief, vegetation distribution, as well as the nature and degree of moisture of the Upper Kama River basin. For geomorphometric analysis, digital elevation models from freely available (ArcticDEM, Alos DEM, TanDEM-X) and created on the basis of vectorization of maps of scales 1: 100 000 and 1:25 000 were used.
As a result, events of different scales were highlighted: inter-basin – the union or rupture of the basin of the western pra-Kama River with adjacent river systems (Vychegda, Vyatka); regional – breakthroughs of lake waters through the Kirsa–Veslyana and Urolka–Vishera watersheds, which formed a single Kama River valley from the source to the mouth of the Vishera River. The formation of the South Keltma River (the left tributary of the Kama River) can also be attributed to the regional level of events. This river, by its location, inherits the lower course of the pra-Kosa River, which still flowed north in the middle Pleistocene and belonged to the pra-Vychegda River basin. The local events include the formation of macrobends in the valleys of the tributaries of the pra-Kama River and the formation of the Late Pleistocene incisions of channel systems on the low terrace of the Kama River. The composition of the sediments (according to drilling data) and the geomorphological data clearly indicate the Late Pleistocene age of watercourses that developed here earlier. In the modern landscape, their channels are represented by an erosive microrelief preserved among the bog geosystems.
Keywords: Upper Kama basin, Upper Kama depression, Keltma hollow, drainage network, spillway, Pleistocene, Holocene, radiocarbon dating, remote sensing
Acknowledgments. The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 20-05-00276).
Fig. 1. Upper reaches of the Kama and Vychegda Rivers (case study): the dashed line shows the outline of the Upper Kama River depression.
Fig. 2. Western and Eastern pra-Kama River.
Fig. 3. Quaternary deposits of the Kirsa River paleovalley (fragment of the USSR State Geological Map ). Deposits: 1 – modern alluvial (loams, sands with gravel and pebbles) (aIV); 2 – modern marsh (peat) (hIV); 3 – modern mid- and upper Quaternary (eluvial-deluvial loams and sands) (edII-IV); 4 – upper Quaternary alluvial I terrace (sands with gravel and pebbles of the Mologa-Sheksna and Ostashkov horizons) (aIIIms + os); 5 – upper Quaternary alluvial II terrace (sands with gravel and pebbles, loams and clays of the Mikulino and Kalinian horizons) (aIIImk + k); 6 –mid-Quaternary alluvial III terrace (sands with gravel and pebbles, clay interlayers of the Odintsovo and Moscow horizons) (aIIod + ms); 7 – mid-Quaternary fluvioglacial retreat times of the Dnieper glacier (sands with gravel and pebbles, loams) (fIId2); 8 – contour of the Kirsa River paleovalley.
Fig. 4.Reorganization of the river network of the Vychegda-Vyatka-Kama basin in the Neo-Pleistocene: a – river network in the Likhvinian interglacial (MIS 11); b – Middle Pleistocene ice-dammed lake (MIS 6); c – river network in the final stage of the Middle Pleistocene glacier termination (MIS 5 – MIS 4); d – river network in the Mikulino interglacial (MIS 4 – MIS 3); e – Late Pleistocene ice-dammed lake (MIS 3 – MIS 2); f – modern river network (MIS 2 – MIS 1); 1 – contour of ice-dammed lakes, 2 – stream course, 3 – water gap valleys.
Fig. 5. Geosystems of the Upper Kama River depression (decoding of designations according to the text).
Fig. 6. The geological structure of the Upper Kama River depression (according to the lithological description of the boreholes ): а – the location of the cross-section, the numbers indicate the boreholes; b –- geological cross-section; 1 – peat; 2 – loam; 3 – sand; 4 – sand with pebbles; 5 – sand with pebbles and gravel; 6 – pebbles with gravel; 7 – sandy loam; 8 – bedrock.
Fig. 7. Bank cuttings of terraces of South Keltma, Pilva, and Timsher: a – location; b – lithological logs; 1 – sand, 2 – sandy loam, 3 – peated sandy loam; 4 – loam; 5 – peated loam; 6 – peat; 7 – calibrated radiocarbon date.
- Krotov P.I. Materials for the geology of the Vyatka province. Tr. O-va. Estestvoispyt. Kazan. Univ., 1879, vol. 8, no. 2. 166 p. (In Russian)
- Kassin N.G. General geological map of the European part of the USSR, sheet 107. Vyatka – Slobodskoi – Omutninsk – Kai. Tr. Geol. Kom. Nov. Ser., 1928, no. 158. 268 p. (In Russian)
- Krasnov I.I. Quaternary deposits and geomorphology of the Kama–Pechora–Vychegda watershed and adjacent territories. In: Materialy po geomorfologii Urala [Materials on the Urals Geomorphology]. Moscow, Leningrad, Izd. Min. Geol. SSSR, 1948, pp. 47–87. (In Russian)
- Aprodov V.A. About the river network in the middle of the western slope of the Urals and Pre-Urals. In: Materialy po geomorfologii Urala [Materials on the Urals Geomorphology]. Moscow, Izd. Min. Geol. SSSR, 1948, pp. 219–224. (In Russian)
- Ryabkov N.V. Ancient glacial basins between the Kama, Pechora, Vychegda and their relicts. Byull. Kom. Izuch. Chetvertichn. Perioda, 1976, vol. 45, pp. 94–105. (In Russian)
- Nazarov N.N., Kopytov S.V. The use of remote sensing data in the study of river network reorganization (by example of the Upper Kama River). Sovrem. Probl. Distantsionnogo Zondirovaniya Zemli Kosmosa, 2019, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 105–117. doi: 10.21046/2070-7401-2019-16-1-105-117. (In Russian)
- Lapteva E.G., Zaretskaya N.E., Kosintsev P.A., Lychagina E.L., Chernov A.V. First data on the Middle to Late Holocene dynamics of vegetation in the Upper Kama region. Russ. J. Ecol., 2017, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 326–334. doi: 10.1134/S1067413617040099.
- Goretsky G.I. Allyuvii velikikh antropogenovykh prarek Russkoi ravniny. Prareki Kamskogo basseina [Alluvium of the Great Antropogenic Pra-Rivers of the Russian Plain. Pra-Rivers of the Kama Basin]. Moscow, Nauka, 1964. 416 p. (In Russian)
- Obedientova G.V. Veka i reki [Ages and Rivers]. Moscow, Nedra, 1983. 120 p. (In Russian)
- Grosswald M.G. Ice sheets in the Russian North and Northeast during the last Great Chill. Mater. Glyatsiologicheskih Issled., 2009, no. 106. 152 p. (In Russian)
- Lavrov A.S., Potapenko L.M. Neopleistotsen Pechorskoi nizmennosti i Zapadnogo Pritiman’ya (stratigrafiya, paleogeografiya, khronologiya) [Neopleistocene of the Pechora Lowland and Western Pre-Timan (Stratigraphy, Paleogeography, Chronology)]. Moscow, Mozhaiskii Poligr. Kombinat, 2012. 191 p. (In Russian)
- Nazarov N.N., Chernov A.V., Kopytov S.V. River’s network rearrangements of the northern Pre-Urals in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Geogr. Vestn., 2015, no. 3, pp. 26–34. (In Russian)
- Nazarov N.N. Pleistocene reorganization and recent development of river channels in the Upper Kama River basin. Geomorfologiya, 2017, no. 3, pp. 88–100. doi: 10.7868/S0435428117030087. (In Russian)
- Dedkov A.P., Sturman V.I. The Kirsa paleovalley and the drainage network transformation in the upper reaches of the Vyatka and Kama Rivers. Geomorfologiya, 1992, no. 2, pp. 49–54. (In Russian)
- Dubeikovskii S.G. Geologicheskaya karta SSSR. Karta chetvertichnykh otlozhenii O-39-V. M-b 1:200 000 [Geological Map of the USSR. Map of the Quaternary Deposits. Quadrangle О-39-V. Scale 1:200 000]. Moscow, MinGeo SSSR, 1979. (In Russian)
- Chumakov O.E., Shik S.M., Kirikov V.P. Gosudarstvennaya geologicheskaya karta Rossiiskoi Federatsii, list O-38, 39 [State Geological Map of the Russian Federation. Quadrangle О-38, 39]. Scale 1:1000000. Kirov, St. Petersburg, VSEGEI, 1999. (In Russian)
- Ziling D.G., Kapitanova K.V., Kulagin S.I., Galushkin Yu.A., Simonov A.N., Korganova L.S. Otchet o rezul’tatakh inzhenerno-geologicheskikh issledovanii, provedennykh Kamkoi partiei v zone proektiruemogo Verkhne-Kamskogo vodokhranilishcha (na uchastke ot s. Bondyug do s. Gainy) v 1958-59 gg. [Report on the Results of Engineering and Geological Studies Performed by the Kama Party in the Area of the Projected Upper Kama Reservoir (On the Site from the Village of Bondyug to the Village of Gainy) in 1958–1959]. Moscow, Mingeo SSSR, 1960. 830 p. (In Russian)
- Bylinskii E.N. Vliyanie glyatsioizostazii na razvitie rel’efa Zemli v pleistotsene [Glacio-Isostatic Influence on the Earth’s Relief Development in the Pleistocene]. Moscow, Izd. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 1996. 210 p. (In Russian)
- Bylinskii E.N. Swell-like lithospheric uplifts caused by glacio-isostasy and their probable influence on oil and gas deposits location in the north of Europe. Geomorfologiya, 1990, no. 4, pp. 3–13. (In Russian)
- Peltier W.R. Global glacial isostasy and the surface of the ice-age Earth: the ICE-5g (VM2) model and GRACE. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 2004, vol. 32, pp. 111–149. doi: 10.1146/annurev.earth.32.082503.144359.
- Busschers F.S., Kasse C., van Balen R.T., Vandenberghe J., Cohen K.M., Weerts H.J.T., Wallinga J., Johns C., Cleveringa P., Bunnik F.P.M. Late Pleistocene evolution of the Rhine-Meuse system in the southern North Sea basin: Imprints of climate change, sea-level oscillation and glacio-isostacy. Quat. Sci. Rev., 2007, vol. 26, pp. 3216–3248. doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.07.013.
- Panin A., Adamiec G., Filippov V. Fluvial response to proglacial effects and climate in the upper Dnieper valley (Western Russia) during the Late Weichselian and the Holocene. Quaternaire, 2015, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 27–48. doi: 10.4000/quaternaire.7141.
- Ryabkov N.V. Lower Pleistocene deposits of the Upper Kama River valley and the adjacent watershed with the Pechora and Vychegda Rivers. In: Nizhnii pleistotsen lednikovykh raionov Russkoi ravniny [Lower Pleistocene in Glacial Regions of the Russian Plain]. Moscow, Nauka, 1967, pp. 167–173. (In Russian)
- Lavrov A.S., Potapenko L.M. Neopleistotsen severo-vostoka Russkoi ravniny [Neopleistocene of the Northeastern Russian Plain]. Moscow, Aerogeologiya, 2005. 348 p. (In Russian)
- Arslanov Kh.A., Lavrov A.S., Nikiforova L.D., Potapenko L.M., Smirnova V.M., Tertychnaya T.V. The Middle Valdai interval in the Vychegda River basin: Geochronology, climate, and deposit genesis. Vestn. Leningr. Univ. Ser. Geol. Geogr., 1979, no. 12, pp. 72–77. (In Russian)
- Guslitser B.I., Duryagina D.A. Natural situations in the Upper Vychegda River basin in the Middle Late Valdai. In: Geologiya i poleznye iskopaemye Evropeiskogo severo-vostoka [Geology and Minerals of the European Northeast]. Syktyvkar, IG Komi Fil. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1983, pp. 26–27. (In Russian)
- Arslanov Kh.A., Levina N.B., Ostanin V.E., Smirnova V.N. Tertychnaya T.V. Geochronology and stratigraphy of the Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene in the Northern Dvina River basin. Vestn. Leningr. Univ. Ser. Geol. Geogr., 1984, no. 12, pp. 57–66. (In Russian)
- Astakhov V.I., Svendsen J.I., Matiouchkov A., Mangerud J., Maslenikova O., Tveranger J. Marginal formations of the last Kara and Barents ice sheets in northern European Russia. Boreas, 1999, vol. 28, pp. 23–45.
- Mangerud J., Jacobsson M., Alexanderson H., Astakhov V., Clarke G.C.K., Henriksen M., Hjort C., Krinnerm G., Lunkkja J.-P., Moller P., Murray A., Nikolskaya O., Saarnisto M., Svendsen J.I. Ice-dammed lakes and rerouting of the drainage of northern Eurasia during the Last Glaciation. Quat. Sci. Rev., 2004, vol. 23, pp. 1313–1332. doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2003.12.009.
- Sidorchuk A.Yu., Borisova O.K., Kovalyukh N.N., Panin A.V., Chernov A.V. Paleohydrology of the Lower Vychegda River in the Late Glaciation and Holocene. Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Ser. 5. Geogr., 1999, no. 5, pp. 34–41. (In Russian)
- Zaretskaya N.E., Panin A.V., Chernov A.V. Golubeva Yu.V. Sedimentation settings and the late Pleistocene–Holocene geochronology in the Vychegda River valley. Dokl. Earth Sci., 2014, vol. 455, no. 1, pp. 223–228. doi: 10.1134/S1028334X14030118.
- Zaretskaya N.E., Panin A.V., Karpukhina N.V. The SIS limits and related proglacial events in the Severnaya Dvina basin, Northwestern Russia: Review and new data. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finl., 2018, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 301–313. doi: 10.17741/bgsf/90.2.012.
- Volkov I.A., Kazmin S.P. Water runoff of the last glaciation of the North of Eurasia. Geogr. Prir. Resur., 2007, no. 4, pp. 5–10. (In Russian)
- Panin A.V., Sidorchuk A.Yu., Baslerov S.V., Borisova O.K., Kovalyukh N.N., Sheremetskaya E.D. The main stages of river valley development in the center of the Russian Plain during the Late Valdai and Holocene: The Middle Seim River basin as an example. Geomorfologia, 2001, no. 2, pp. 19–34. (In Russian)
- Borisova O.K., Sidorchuk A.Yu., Panin A.V. Palaeohydrology of the Seim River basin, Mid-Russian Upland, based on palaeochannel morphology and palynological data. Catena, 2006, vol. 66, pp. 53–73. doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2005.07.010.
- Panin A.V., Matlakhova E.Yu. Periodic manifestations of a powerful river flow in the center of the Russian Plain during the Valdai. Vestn. Tomsk. Gos. Univ., 2013, no. 370, pp. 168–174. (In Russian)
- Sidorchuk A.Yu., Panin A.V. Geomorphological approach to the river runoff evaluation in the geological past (Paper 1. Regime equations). Geomorfologiya, 2017, no. 1, pp. 55–65. doi: 10.15356/0435-4281-2017-1-55-65. (In Russian)
- Sidorchuk A.Yu., Borisova O.K., Panin A.V. Fluvial response to the Late Valdai/Holocene environmental change on the East European Plain. Global Planet. Change, 2001, vol. 28, pp. 303–318. doi: 10.1016/S0921-8181(00)00081-3.
- Eberhards G.Ya. Morphogenesis of the valleys of the LGM region and modern river processes (the case study of Middle Baltic region). Extended Abstract of Cand. Geogr. Sci. Diss. Moscow, 1985. 54 p. (In Russian)
- Dvareckas V.V. Geomorphology and evolution of river valleys during the Late Glacial time and the Holocene on the Southern Baltic region. Geomorfologiya, 1992, no. 2, pp. 42–48. (In Russian)
- Chalov R.S. Ruslovedenie: teoriya, geografiya, praktika [Riverbed Science: Theory, Geography, Practice]. Vol. 2: Morphodynamics of river channels. Moscow, KRASAND, 2011. 960 p. (In Russian)
- Nazarov N.N., Kopytov S.V. Evaluation of the morphometry parameters of the floodplain to distinguish its generations of different age (using the Upper Kama River as an example). Geomorfologiya, 2015, no. 4, pp. 79–85. doi:10.15356/0433-4281-201S-4-79-85. (In Russian)
The content is available under the license Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.