Yu.S. Biske a*, D.V. Alexeiev b**, A.V. Djenchuraeva c***, B. Wang d****
a Institute of Earth Sciences, St. Petersburg, 199034 Russia
b Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119017 Russia
c M.M. Adyshev Institute of Geology, National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic,
Bishkek, 720481 Kyrgyzstan
d School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 China
E-mail: *firstname.lastname@example.org, **email@example.com, ***firstname.lastname@example.org, ****email@example.com
Received January18, 2016
Full text PDF
The history of the Late Palaeozoic convergence and collisions in the South Tian Shan, Tarim, and South Junggar has been considered based on new geological and geochronological data. The Late Palaeozoic (Pennsylvanian and Permian) in this region represents a distinct phase in the regional tectonic history and, thus, corresponds to the original meaning of the concept of “geological period (system)”. This phase begins with several events, which occur in the Early and Middle Pennsylvanian as follows: 1) development of a continuous north-dipping subduction zone along the northern edge of the South Tian Shan at ca. 320–315 Ma and beginning of overthrusting in the South Tian Shan; 2) collision of the Bogdoshan arc with the Yili continental arc of Eastern Kazakhstan at ca. 315–310 Ma. This led to elimination of magmatism in these two arcs and was followed by deposition of carbonates and subsidence in the Bogdoshan and Junggar basins; 3) beginning of collisions between the Alai and Tarim microcontinents and the southern margin of the Kazakhstan continent at ca. 310 Ma. Subduction and collisional deformations in the South Tian Shan were accompanied by top-to-the south overthrusting and deposition of turbidites and olistostromes that range in age from the Bashkirian in the north to the Asselian in the south. Amalgamation of two continents in the South Tian Shan led to elimination of the last deeper marine basins with cherty deposits in the Late Pennsylvanian and to termination of turbidite sedimentation in the Asselian.
Beginning of the late collisional phase in the South Tian Shan during the late Asselian and Sakmarian is expressed by: 1) overthrusting changed to folding and strike-slip faulting; 2) general uplift of the fold-and-thrust belt that led to elimination of the last marine basins and consequent deposition of coarse continental molasses; 3) initiation of post-collisional granitoid magmatism, which at least by part may also reflect melting of the continental crust due to heating by the Tarim mantle plume. Tectonic events that took place in the Tian Shan-Junggar region during the Triassic and Jurassic are conventionally considered as intraplate, and this allows to define the end of the Late Palaeozoic tectonic phase near the boundary of the Permian and Triassic.
Keywords: Upper Palaeozoic, tectonic phases, Tarim, Junggar, Tian Shan, subduction magmatism, carbonate platforms, collision, overthrusting, flysch
Fig. 1. Tectonic settings of the Palaeozoic Central and Eastern Tian Shan: 1 – Mezozoic and Cenozoic; 2 – South Tian Shan, Late Paleozoic fold-and-thrust belt (Alai carbonate platform is shown with dashed line); 3, 4 – Yili-Kazakhstan paleocontinent: 3 – Kazakhstan – North Tian Shan belt, including Kyrgyz North Tian Shan (NTSh), and Chinese Central Tian Shan (CTSh), 4 – Middle Tian Shan (Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous passive margin of the Kazakhstan continent); 5 – Tarim Precambrian microcontinent; 6 – middle to upper Palaeozoic accretionary complexes and arcs in Junggar-Balkhash and Altai areas; 7 – Cenozoic folded belt of Pamirs; 8 –Carboniferous continental arcs of the Northeastern Tian Shan (NETSh), Hissar (H), Beltau-Kurama (K) and Bogdoshan (B); 9 – major faults (a), eclogites (b), localities, mentioned in the text (c): Bg –Bayingou, Kn – Каn, Bb – Baubashata, Bz –Bozoy, Ul – Ulan, Cb – Sary-Beles, Br – Borkoldoy, Ksh – Коkshaal Range, Hr – Harkeshan Range, Kd – Kaidu, Kp – Kepin Mts., Hsh – Heiyingshan, Bn – Bayinbuluk, Ag –Aiveyergou.
Fig. 2. General concept of the crust dynamics in the Tarim to Junggar transect at the end of the Carboniferous. Only Carboniferous and Permian deposits and magmatic complex are shown, volcanic rocks are outlined. Dark-gray is the oceanic crust and ophiolites: T – Turkestan ocean, PA – Palaeoasian (Junggar) ocean. Continental and accreted terranes are Tarim, South Tian Shan, Kazakhstan-Yili (Middle and North Tian Shan), Bogdoshan arc. Actual length of the profile is 400–500 km.
Fig. 3. Correlation of the main sedimentary and magmatic formations along the Tarim – Junggar transect: 1 – сarbonate platforms; 2 – ophiolites; 3 – bathyal sediments; 4 – pre-flysch; 5 – flysch; 6 – HP metamorphism; 7 – breccia of accretion phase; 8 – shallow marine clastics; 9 – continental molasses; 10 – subductional volcanic rocks; 11 – postcollisional volcanic rocks; 12 – break in sedimentation; 13 – unconformities ; 14 – early collisional granitoids; 15 – postcollisional granitoids.
- Leonov G.P. Principles of Stratigraphy. Vol. 1. Moscow, Izd. Mosk. Univ., 1973. 527 p. (In Russian)
- Alexeiev D.V., Biske Yu.S., Wang B., Djenchuraeva A.V., Getman O.F., Aristov V.A., Kröner A., Liu H., Zhong L. Tectono-stratigraphic framework and Palaeozoic evolution of the Chinese South Tianshan. Geotectonics, 2015 vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 93–122.
- Alekseev D.V., Aristov V.A., Degtyarev K.E. The age and tectonic setting of volcanic and cherty sequences in the ophiolite complex of the Atbashe Ridge (Southern Tien Shan). Dokl. Earth Sci., 2007, vol. 413, no. 2, pp. 380–383.
- Burtman V.S. Tien-Shan and High Asia. Tectonics and Geodynamics in the Palaeozoic era. Мoscow, GEOS, 2006. 216 p. (In Russian)
- Kurenkov S.A., Didenko A.N., Simonov V.A., Lubnina N.V. Geodynamic conditions for formation of the paleospreading complexes of the Ural-Mongolian belt. Ocherki po regional'noi tektonike [Essays on Regional Tectonics]. Vol. 2. Moscow, Nauka, 2005, pp. 201–247. (In Russian)
- Safonova I., Biske G., Romer R.L., Seltmann R., Simonov V., Maruyama S. Middle Paleozoic mafic magmatism and ocean plate stratigraphy of the South Tianshan, Kyrgyzstan. Gondwana Res., 2016, vol. 30, pp. 236–256. doi: 10.1016/j.gr.2015.03.006.
- Biske Yu.S., Porshnyakov G.S., Zubtsov S.E. Hercynides of the Atbashe-Kokshaal Region, Southern Tien Shan. Leningrad, Izd. Leningr. Univ., 1985. 190 p. (In Russian)
- Biske Yu.S. Palaeozoic Structure and History of Southern Tian-Shan. St. Petersburg, Izd. S.-Peterb. Univ., 1996. 190 p. (In Russian)
- Klemd R., John T., Scherer E.E., Rondenay S., Gao J. Changes in dip of subducted slabs at depth: petrological and geochronological evidence from HP–UHP rocks (Tianshan, NW-China). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2011, vol. 310, nos. 1–2, pp. 9–20. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.07.022.
- Simonov V.A., Sakiev K.S., Volkova N.I., Stupakov S.I., Travin A.V. Conditions of formation of the Atbashe Ridge eclogites (South Tianshan). Russ. Geol. Geophys., 2008, vol. 49, pp. 803–815.
- Hegner E., Klemd R., Kröner A., Corsini M., Alexeiev D.V., Iaccheri L.M., Zack T., Dulski P., Xia X., Windley B.F. Mineral ages and P-T conditions of Late Paleozoic high-pressure eclogite and provenance of mélange sediments from Atbashi in the south Tianshan orogen of Kyrgyzstan. Am. J. Sci., 2010, vol. 310, no. 9, pp. 916–950. doi: 10.2475/09.2010.07.
- Han Y., Zhao G., Sun M., Eizenhöfer P.R., Hou W., Zhang X., Liu Q., Wang B., Liu D., Xu B. Late Paleozoic subduction and collision processes during the amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt along the South Tianshan suture zone. Lithos, 2016, vols. 246–247, pp. 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.lithos.2015.12.016.
- Nenakhov V.M., Lytochkin V.Yu., Perfil'ev A.S., Kuznetsov L.V. Chaotic complexes of Paleozoic structures in the Southern Tien Shan. Geologicheskoe kartirovanie khaoticheskikh kompleksov [Geological Surveying of Chaotic Complexes]. Moscow, Roskomnedra, 1992, pp. 8–87. (In Russian)
- Djenchuraeva A.V., Getman O.F. New data on stratigraphy of the Upper Paleozoic of the Shuran-Shunk interfluve area. Novye dannye o biostratigrafii dokembriya i paleozoya Kyrgyzstana [New Data on Biostratigraphy of the Pre-Cambrian and Paleozoic of Kyrgyzstan]. Bishkek, Ilim, 1993. pp. 138–149. (In Russian)
- Burtman V.S. Tectonics and geodynamics of the Tian Shan in the Middle and Late Paleozoic. Geotectonics, 2015, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 302–319.
- Djenchuraeva A.V. Stratigraphy and foraminifera of the Middle Carboniferous deposits on the north flank of the Turkestan-Alai Range. Frunze, Ilim, 1979. 184 p. (In Russian)
- Biske Yu.S., Djenchuraeva A.V., Neevin A.V., Vorob'ev T.Yu. The Middle–Upper Paleozoic stratigraphy and paleogeography of the transitional area between the Turkestan Ocean and Tarim Continent (Tien Shan). Stratigr. Geol. Korrel., 2003, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 46–59. (In Russian)
- Chiaradia M., Konopelko D., Seltmann R., Cliff R. Lead sources in ore deposits and magmatic rocks of the Tien Shan and Chinese Altay, Proc. 8th Bienn. SGA Meet. Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge. Mao J., Bierlein F.P. (Eds.). Beijing, Springer, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 1301–1304.
- Carroll A.R., Graham S.A., Hendrix M.S., Ying D., Zhou D. Late Palaeozoic tectonic amalgamation of NW China: sedimentary records of the northern Tarim, northwestern Turpan, and southern Junggar basins. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 1995, vol. 107, pp. 571–594.
- Li S.W., Xu D.K. (Eds.) Geological Map of Chinese Tianshan and Adjacent Areas, Scale 1:1 000 000. 2 Sheets. Beijing, Geol. Publ. House, 2007. (In Chinese)
- The Carboniferous and Permian Stratigraphy and Biota in Kalpin Region, Xinjiang. Institute of Geology, Xinjiang Geological Bureau and Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (Eds.). Beijing, Ocean Press, 1987. (In Chinese)
- Yu X., Yang Sh.-F., Chen H.-L., Chen Zh.-Q., Li Z.-L., Batt G.E., Li Y.-Q. Permian flood basalts from the Tarim Basin, Northwest China: SHRIMP zircon U–Pb, dating and geochemical characteristics. Gondwana Res., 2011, vol. 20, nos. 2–3, pp. 485–497. doi: 10.1016/j.gr.2010.11.009.
- Xiao W., Windley B.F., Allen M.B., Han Ch. Paleozoic multiple accretionary and collisional tectonics of the Chinese Tianshan orogenic collage. Gondwana Res., 2013, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1316–1341. doi: 10.1016/j.gr.2012.01.012.
- Seltmann R., Konopelko D., Biske G., Divaev F., Sergeev S. Hercynian post-collisional magmatism in the context of Paleozoic magmatism evolution of the Tien Shan orogenic belt. J. Asian Earth Sci., 2011, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 821–838. doi: 10.1016/j.jseaes.2010.08.016.
- Han B.-F., He G.-Q., Wang X.-Ch., Guo Zh.-J. Late Carboniferous collision between the Tarim and Kazakhstan–Yili terranes in the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen, Central Asia, and implications for the Northern Xinjiang, western China. Earth-Sci. Rev., 2011, vol. 109, nos. 3–4, pp. 74–93. doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2011.09.001.
- Li Z., Chen H., Song B., Li Y., Yang Sh., Yu X. Temporal evolution of the Permian large igneous province in Tarim Basin in northwestern China. J. Asian Earth Sci., 2011, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 917–927. doi: 10.1016/j.jseaes.2011.05.009.
- Biske Yu.S., Konopelko D.L., Seltmann R. Geodynamics of late Paleozoic magmatism in the Tien Shan and its framework. Geotectonics, 2013, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 291–309.
- Alexeiev D.V., Cook H.E., Djenchuraeva A.V., Mikolaichuk A.V. The stratigraphic, sedimentological and structural evolution of the southern margin of the Kazakhstan continent in the Tien Shan Range during the Devonian to Permian. Spec. Publ. – Geol. Soc. London, 2015, vol. 427. doi: 10.1144/SP427.3.
- Seliverstov K.V., Ges M.D. Petrochemical features of igneous rocks and main parameters of the Middle Carboniferous-Early Permian subduction of Turkestan paleoocean. Geol. Geofiz., 2001, vol. 42, pp. 1471–1475. (In Russian)
- Alekseev D.V., Degtyarev K.E., Kotov A.B., Sal'nikova E.B., Tret'yakov A.A., Yakovleva S.Z., Anisimova I.V., Shatagin K.N. Late Paleozoic subductional and collisional igneous complexes in the Naryn segment of the Middle Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan). Dokl. Earth Sci., 2009, vol. 427, no. 1, pp. 760–763.
- Dalimov T.N., Ganiev I.N. Evolution and Types of Magmatism in the Western Tien Shan. Tashkent, Universitet, 2010. 228 p. (In Russian)
- Stratified and Intrusive Rocks of Kirgizia. Osmonbetov K.O., Knauf V.I., Korolev V.T. (Eds.). Frunze: Ilim, 1982. Vol. 1, 357 p. Vol. 2, 245 p. (In Russian)
- Wang B., Cluzel D., Shu L.S., Faure M., Charvet J., Chen Y., Meffre S., de Jong K. Evolution of calc-alkaline to alkaline magmatism through Carboniferous convergence to Permian transcurrent tectonics, western Chinese Tianshan. Int. J. Earth Sci., 2009, vol. 98, pp. 1275–1298. doi: 10.1007/s00531-008-0408-y.
- Wang B., Jahn B.-m., Lo Ch.-H., Shu L.-sh., Wu Ch.-Y., Li K.-s., Wang F. Structural analysis and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of Proterozoic rocks in Sailimu area (NW China): Implication to polyphase tectonics of the North Chinese Tianshan. J. Asian Earth Sci., 2011, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 839–853. doi: 10.1016/j.jseaes.2011.07.022.
- Wang B., Faure M., Shu L.S., Cluzel D., Charvet J., de Jong K., Chen Y. Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Yili Block, western Chinese Tianshan. Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr., 2008, vol. 179, no. 5, pp. 483–490.
- Xia L., Xu X., Li X., Ma Zh., Xia Z. Reassessment of petrogenesis of Carboniferous–Early Permian rift-related volcanic rocks in the Chinese Tianshan and its neighboring areas. Geosci. Front., 2012, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 445–471. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2011.12.011.
- Li Ch., Xiao W., Han Ch., Zhou K., Zhang J., Zhang Zh. Late Devonian – early Permian accretionary orogenesis along the North Tianshan in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Int. Geol. Rev., 2015, vol. 57, no. 5–8, pp. 1023–1050. doi: 10.1080/00206814.2014.913268.
- Xu X.Y., Li X.M., Ma Z.P. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating of gabbro from the Bayingou Ophiolite in the northern Tianshan Mountains. Acta Geol. Sin., 2006, vol. 80, no. 8, pp. 1168–1176.
- Han B.-F., Guo Zh.-J., Zhang Zh.-Ch., Zhan L., Chen J.-F., Song B. Age, geochemistry, and tectonic implications of a late Paleozoic stitching pluton in the North Tian Shan suture zone, western China. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 2010, vol. 122, nos. 3–4, pp. 627–640. doi: 10.1130/B26491.1.
- Chen X., Shu L., Santosh M., Zhao X. Island arc-type bimodal magmatism in the eastern Tianshan Belt, Northwest China: geochemistry, zircon U–Pb geochronology and implications for the Paleozoic crustal evolution in Central Asia. Lithos, 2013, vols. 168–169, pp. 48–66. doi: 10.1016/j.lithos.2012.10.006.
- Li D., He D., Santosh M., Ma D. Tectonic framework of the northern Junggar Basin Part II: The island arc basin system of the western Luliang Uplift and its link with the West Junggar terrane. Gondwana Res., 2014, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 1110–1130. doi: 10.1016/j.gr.2014.08.019.
- Shu L., Wang B., Zhu W., Guo Zh., Charvet J., Zhang Y. Timing of initiation of extension in the Tianshan, based on structural, geochemical and geochronological analyses of bimodal volcanism and olistostrome in the Bogda Shan (NW China). Int. J. Earth Sci., 2011, vol. 100, pp. 1647–1663. doi: 10.1007/s00531-010-0575-5.
- Thomas S.G., Tabor N.J., Yang W. Myers T.S., Yang Y., Wang D. Palaeosol stratigraphy across the Permian–Triassic boundary, Bogda Mountains, NW China: implications for palaeoenvironmental transition through earth's largest mass extinction. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 2011, vol. 308, nos. 1–2, pp. 41–64. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.10.037.
- Domeier M., Torsvik T.H. Plate tectonics in the late Paleozoic. Geosci. Front., 2014, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 303–350. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2014.01.002.
For citation: Biske Yu.S., Alexeiev D.V., Djenchuraeva A.V., Wang B. Closing history of the Late Palaeozoic oceanic basins between Tarim and Junggar: geodynamics and stratigraphic problems. Uchenye Zapiski Kazanskogo Universiteta. Seriya Estestvennye Nauki, 2016, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 75–93. (In Russian)
The content is available under the license Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.