Yu.S. Biske a)*, D.V. Alexeiev b)**, A.V. Djenchuraeva c)***, B. Wang d)****
a) Institute of Earth Sciences, St. Petersburg, 199034 Russia
b) Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119017 Russia
c) M.M. Adyshev Institute of Geology, National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic,
Bishkek, 720481 Kyrgyzstan
d) School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 China
E-mail: *firstname.lastname@example.org, **email@example.com, ***firstname.lastname@example.org, ****email@example.com
Received January18, 2016
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The history of the Late Palaeozoic convergence and collisions in the South Tian Shan, Tarim, and South Junggar has been considered based on new geological and geochronological data. The Late Palaeozoic (Pennsylvanian and Permian) in this region represents a distinct phase in the regional tectonic history and, thus, corresponds to the original meaning of the concept of “geological period (system)”. This phase begins with several events, which occur in the Early and Middle Pennsylvanian as follows: 1) development of a continuous north-dipping subduction zone along the northern edge of the South Tian Shan at ca. 320–315 Ma and beginning of overthrusting in the South Tian Shan; 2) collision of the Bogdoshan arc with the Yili continental arc of Eastern Kazakhstan at ca. 315–310 Ma. This led to elimination of magmatism in these two arcs and was followed by deposition of carbonates and subsidence in the Bogdoshan and Junggar basins; 3) beginning of collisions between the Alai and Tarim microcontinents and the southern margin of the Kazakhstan continent at ca. 310 Ma. Subduction and collisional deformations in the South Tian Shan were accompanied by top-to-the south overthrusting and deposition of turbidites and olistostromes that range in age from the Bashkirian in the north to the Asselian in the south. Amalgamation of two continents in the South Tian Shan led to elimination of the last deeper marine basins with cherty deposits in the Late Pennsylvanian and to termination of turbidite sedimentation in the Asselian.
Beginning of the late collisional phase in the South Tian Shan during the late Asselian and Sakmarian is expressed by: 1) overthrusting changed to folding and strike-slip faulting; 2) general uplift of the fold-and-thrust belt that led to elimination of the last marine basins and consequent deposition of coarse continental molasses; 3) initiation of post-collisional granitoid magmatism, which at least by part may also reflect melting of the continental crust due to heating by the Tarim mantle plume. Tectonic events that took place in the Tian Shan-Junggar region during the Triassic and Jurassic are conventionally considered as intraplate, and this allows to define the end of the Late Palaeozoic tectonic phase near the boundary of the Permian and Triassic.
Keywords: Upper Palaeozoic, tectonic phases, Tarim, Junggar, Tian Shan, subduction magmatism, carbonate platforms, collision, overthrusting, flysch
Fig. 1. Tectonic settings of the Palaeozoic Central and Eastern Tian Shan: 1 – Mezozoic and Cenozoic; 2 – South Tian Shan, Late Paleozoic fold-and-thrust belt (Alai carbonate platform is shown with dashed line); 3, 4 – Yili-Kazakhstan paleocontinent: 3 – Kazakhstan – North Tian Shan belt, including Kyrgyz North Tian Shan (NTSh), and Chinese Central Tian Shan (CTSh), 4 – Middle Tian Shan (Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous passive margin of the Kazakhstan continent); 5 – Tarim Precambrian microcontinent; 6 – middle to upper Palaeozoic accretionary complexes and arcs in Junggar-Balkhash and Altai areas; 7 – Cenozoic folded belt of Pamirs; 8 –Carboniferous continental arcs of the Northeastern Tian Shan (NETSh), Hissar (H), Beltau-Kurama (K) and Bogdoshan (B); 9 – major faults (a), eclogites (b), localities, mentioned in the text (c): Bg –Bayingou, Kn – Каn, Bb – Baubashata, Bz –Bozoy, Ul – Ulan, Cb – Sary-Beles, Br – Borkoldoy, Ksh – Коkshaal Range, Hr – Harkeshan Range, Kd – Kaidu, Kp – Kepin Mts., Hsh – Heiyingshan, Bn – Bayinbuluk, Ag –Aiveyergou.
Fig. 2. General concept of the crust dynamics in the Tarim to Junggar transect at the end of the Carboniferous. Only Carboniferous and Permian deposits and magmatic complex are shown, volcanic rocks are outlined. Dark-gray is the oceanic crust and ophiolites: T – Turkestan ocean, PA – Palaeoasian (Junggar) ocean. Continental and accreted terranes are Tarim, South Tian Shan, Kazakhstan-Yili (Middle and North Tian Shan), Bogdoshan arc. Actual length of the profile is 400–500 km.
Fig. 3. Correlation of the main sedimentary and magmatic formations along the Tarim – Junggar transect: 1 – сarbonate platforms; 2 – ophiolites; 3 – bathyal sediments; 4 – pre-flysch; 5 – flysch; 6 – HP metamorphism; 7 – breccia of accretion phase; 8 – shallow marine clastics; 9 – continental molasses; 10 – subductional volcanic rocks; 11 – postcollisional volcanic rocks; 12 – break in sedimentation; 13 – unconformities ; 14 – early collisional granitoids; 15 – postcollisional granitoids.
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For citation: Biske Yu.S., Alexeiev D.V., Djenchuraeva A.V., Wang B. Closing history of the Late Palaeozoic oceanic basins between Tarim and Junggar: geodynamics and stratigraphic problems. Uchenye Zapiski Kazanskogo Universiteta. Seriya Estestvennye Nauki, 2016, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 75–93. (In Russian)
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