Exhibition Halls\Alexander Stuckenberg Geology Museum - Kazan (Volga region) Federal University
  • Портал КФУ \ On Campus \ Museums \ Alexander Stuckenberg Geology Museum
Exhibition Halls

First knowledge on minerals dates back to the ancient times. Recognition of mineral world started with primitive use of stones as tools and guns.

The development of natural sciences, including Mineralogy, is connected with the epoch of Renaissance. By the XV-XVI centuries there were big centers of mine industry in Europe predetermined Mineralogy understanding as an independent science. G. Agricolla (1494-1555) was recognized as an outstanding scientist of encyclopedic knowledge of that time.

Later, in the XVIII century such prominent scientists as A.G.Werner, M.V.Lomonosov, Rome de Lisle, and R.J.Hauy worked in the field of Mineralogy. G.V.Wallastone and N.I.Koksharov, V.Golschmidt and Ye.S.Fyodorov, F.Mohs and H.C.Sorby and many others contributed a lot to the development of Mineralogy.

In the XX century Mineralogy made great progress as independent fundamental science, which had developed methods of investigations, terminology and basic mineral world classification, suggested by J.J.Berzelius in 1826.

In the XX century the classification of dynamically improving classification of minerals were enriched and developed by V.I.Vernadsky and A.Ye.Fersman, A.G.Betekhtin and A.A.Godovikov and other naturalists. As a result of that long-term evolution, nowadays we have classification, which covers all the variety of minerals found by man on the Earth and in acceptable space. By the way, in 2002 there were 4000 classified minerals and 50-80 new ones are opened every year.

One should remember that at present the term "mineral" denotes physically and chemically homogeneous crystal bodies, formed in the process of physical and chemical reactions. Strictly speaking, water and oil, natural mercury and amber and other amorphous formations are not minerals. The same concerns grown diamonds and rubies, garnets and other unnatural formations.

Taking into consideration all mentioned above we arranged a systematic exposition of the Mineralogy Section of the KSU Geology Museum. The minerals of the collection are divided into following classes:

native (natural) elem,
sulphides and their analoguи,
oxides and hydroxides,
chromates, molibdates and tungstates,
phosphates, arsenates and vanadates,