The history of creation of the Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory was begun in 1897 with transfer a complimentary to the Kazan University of the unique astronomical equipment of the private observatory in Dresden by known astronomer Vasiliy Pavlovich Engelhardt. Having stopped astronomical activity owing to advanced years and illnesses Engelhardt has decided to offer all tools and library of the Astronomical observatory of the Kazan University. Vasiliy Pavlovich has put the first condition of the donation that his tools have been established as soon as possible and on them supervision are started. In 1898 the decree of Emperor had been allocated means and the ground for construction of the Astronomical observatory is allocated.
Main Office building of EAO
The district of a site is completely equal, the height above sea level makes 94 m, and above a level of Volga of 55 m. The East side the site adjoins to the road going from station and is separated from it with a long fence. A gate on territory of an observatory is on east side of a site. Near to a gate the administrative two-storied graceful stone building in style of early classicism is constructed. The architect of constructions in territory of an observatory was university architect N.F.Malinovsky. In a building the cabinet of director, laboratory, computing and other services are located. In the beginning of a century in its east wing apartments for observers settled down also. To the south from a building the meteorological station has been earlier located.
The main building of the Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory.
From an entrance gate to the West the wide avenue results in a building of the Observatory, a pediment leaving on the south.
Above a wide stone porch there is an inscription: 1901 (time of construction). The building of an observatory - one-storied stone, in the central part has two halls and terminates from the West in a tower for 12 - inch telescope of Engelgardt equatorial, and from the east by a small corridor is connected to pavilion of a meridian circle. General length of all three buildings of 40 meters. Height of a tower up to top of a dome of 11 meters, height of the central building of 6 m and height of a meridian hall of 7 m. The external architecture of the central building and a tower is very easy and graceful. The meridian hall is built under the project of professor V.Shlejer from the zinced wavy iron. Walls of a hall double with an air layer of 0.4 m for air circulation. From southern and northern sides of pavilion hatches for supervision with width in 1.2 m are located.
From the southern side of a site there is a building of Library - a fine stone building with the columns, forming almost correct triangle with specified by two buildings.
Building of library EAO.
The main telescope of the Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory the 12-inch refractor was constructed by English master Grubbom in 1875. It had diameter of an objective 31 cm and length about 4 meters. Refractor Tower has height of 6.5 m, its internal diameter about 6 m. Tower is surrounded with a small balcony with a graceful pig-iron lattice. The column for a refractor is laid out separately from walls of a tower and leaves under the ground on 3 m. The dome iron, tamped inside a tree, moves on rollers which go on two pairs a rail. Diameter of a dome of 6.6 m. Has one slot for supervision in width in one meter, closed by two hatches.
Meridian circle of Engelhardt observatory had been made in 1845 in Hamburg by the known designer of astronomical tools - Repsold. Columns of the tool tower above a floor of a hall on 2 m and are isolated from other part of the base and a floor by glycerin. Distance between them of 1.1 m. For protection against heating the meridian circle is covered with a wooden sliding small house. At a meridian circle there are two worlds removed from the center of mercury horizon on 130 m everyone. Southern to the world, owing to downturn of district, it was necessary to lift in the way of fillings a special barrow on 5.5 meters in height. The pavilion the worlds is not only astronomical point, but also a tomb - a unique architectural construction. It is constructed as a small chapel in the Byzantine style, decorated on perimeter by stars and signs on the zodiac. In the basis of it there is a crypt for the two persons intending for V.P.Engelhardt and D.I.Dubjago. But is based here only Dubiago, dyed in 1918. V.P.Engelhardt's died in Dresden in 1915 body, owing to begun 1-st. world war with Germany and to the followed revolution to transfer in the Observatory it was not possible. Astronomers of Engelhardt observatory do not lose hope to execute last will of the founder and to bury his ashes under southern chrism - a tomb, next to his friend. In the north of territory on a direction of a meridian there is an iron pavilion northern the worlds.
Pavilion of Heliometer.
The unique tool of the Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory is unique in the world now a working telescope heliometer. It's one of the first heliometers, left workshops Repsolda. It has been made in 1874 and established in Engelhardt observatory in 1908 in especially for him the constructed round pavilion in diameter of 3.6 m.
Besides on an observant platform of the Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory locates the advanced telescopes got EAO at various times: Zenith a telescope, astrograph Geid, the Meniscal telescope of system Maksutova, AFR, telescope AZT-14 modified and completed CCD matrix, etc.