Gene and cellular therapy
In 2011, Kazan federal university became a participant of federal purposive program of Russian Federation “Development of pharmaceutical and medical industry till 2020 and following perspectives” (Pharma-2020). Owing to this program, Scientific-educational center of pharmaceutics was found. Department of gene and cell technologies is headed by Prof. A.A. Rizvanov. It develops new combined methods of gene and cellular therapy for various human diseases (neurodegenerative disorders, posttraumatic regeneration of organs and tissues, ischemic conditions, atherosclerosis, etc). Also, cellular and molecular models for screening and preclinical investigations for drugs (anticancer, antiviral, neuroprotective) are using.
Molecular mechanisms of reparation, recombination and mutagenesis.
Utilization of bacilli in cancer treatment.
Bacillus subtilis mutants were isolated that had low activity of ATP-dependent DNAse and cloning of the corresponding gene in cells of E. coli was made (B.I. Barabanschikov, F.Sh. Gizatullin): that allowed to prove a homology of these enzymes in different bacteria. For the first time, mutants with low activity of exonuclease I was made for B. subtilis, and cloning and sequences of the corresponding gene was performed. (B.I. Barabanschikov, S.V. Malkov). The participation of both enzymes in genetic transformation in B. subtilis was proved. Also, anticancer and antiallergic properties of some bacilli were presented.
Structure and biological role of bacterial nucleases.
The department performs cojoint investigations with Giessen university (Germany) on clarification of structure and biological role of bacterial nucleases (O.A. Gimadutdinov).
The next direction is connected with investigation of mechanisms of so-called adaptive mutations. On the basis of Ames strains (Salmonella) it was presented that reversion to histidine-dependence arises only in conditions of starvation on this amino acid. Mutations start to appear since 4 h after beginning of starvation, and their quantity increases gradually. The appearance of these mutations is connected with unusual synthesis of DNA (F.Sh. Gizatullin, E.V. Babynin, G.T. Lyozin). In cells of B. subtilis it was founsd that frequency of adaptive mutations increases with enhancement of transcription of the corresponding genes (B.I. Barabanschikov, A.R. Kayumov). Also, investigations of mechanisms of transduction of cellular signals in bacilli cells, adaptive reactions of cells to stress actions and control of metabolic status of cells are making (A.R. Kayumov). This work is carried out together with workers from Tuebingen university (Germany).
Genetics and adaptation of mycoplasmas.
Also, conjoint works are making with Laboratory of Molecular Basis of Pathogenesis, Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences. In works by Prof. V.M. Chernov and O.A. Chernova it was found that that mycoplasma persistence may be an indicator of the pathology of microbiocoens in humans. It was posted for the first time that mycoplasma persistence (Mycoplasma hominis, M. fermentans, M. genitalium, Acholeplasma laidlawii, Ureaplasma urealyticum) may result in microflora disbalance in genital tract with predominance of opportunistic microorganisms (Gardnerella vaginalis, Bacteroides spp., Peptococcus spp., Eubacterium spp.). Waste products of these microorganisms may favor the reproduction of mycoplasmas. Variability of the vaa genes in clinical isolates of M. hominis was found. It was determined a hypervariable region of the vaa gene connected with an area encoding the immunosignificant part of the mycoplasma Vaa protein. Taking into account all data, schemes for the possible mechanisms of mycoplasma persistence in higher eukaryote were suggested.
Genetic algorithms for bioindication.
Works on the development of express methods for bioindication of waters on the basis of modern methods of bioinformatics and molecular genetics seem perspective (L.L. Frolova, S.S. Firsova). At present, works in Kazan lakes make place: planktonic organisms are analyzing, available nucleotide sequences and amino acid sequences are investigating, DNA is isolating from planktonic organisms using modern technologies of DNA barcoding. Evaluation of pollution and ecological state of Kazan lakes is performing.