Fayaz Sharipovich Khuzin,
Institute of History, Tatarstan Academy of Sciences,
Entrance 5, Kremlin, Kazan, 420014, Russia,
Ayrat Gabitovich Sitdikov,
Kazan Federal University,
18 Kremlyovskaya Str., Kazan, 420008, Russia,
The article summarizes the brief results of the medieval Kazan study (the 11th-the first half of the 16th centuries) on the basis of archeological expedition materials made by the Institute of History. The Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan named after Sh.Mardjani conducted excavations on the territory of the Kremlin in 1994-2005 and from 2000 till present time in the trading quarter (Posad) of the city. The uniqueness of the city of Kazan as a monument of archeology is that it is one of those rare Bulgarian cities with an ongoing history from the end of the 10th until the beginning of the 11th century. For a long time the early stages of the city history were not adequately investigated due to the lack of sources. The scientific research carried out by different experts during the last two decades dramatically changed the situation in the source studies and the history of medieval Kazan. Integrated analysis of the sources (archaeological, written, numismatic, epigraphic, folklore, and mapping) helped to solve a number of controvertible problems related primarily to the date of the city foundation and the identification of the original settlement’s social status. It also outlined the dynamics of the regional city development, reconstructed its topographic structure, and identified the economic aspects of life in the 11th – the first half of the 16th century. The previous publications were focused on justification of the time Kazan was founded as a trading post and military fort in the northern periphery of Volga Bulgaria. This article deals with the Golden Horde (the second half of 13th – the first half of 15th centuries) and Khan periods (1445-1552) of the city history.
Dramatic increase of the research dealt with ancient Kazan monuments included in the UNESCO world heritage list in 2005 led to the science-based reconstruction of its historic centre, conservation and restoration works so that the constructions which were found during the excavations could be used as objects of international tourism.
Key words: the city of Kazan, the pre-Mongol period, the Golden Horde period, the capital of Kazan Khanate, historical topography, buildings, economic aspects of living.