: A A A : A A A

The scientific work of the Department

Students can realize their potential in several scientific fields (Department of poster). One of them is realized in the laboratory of Neurobiology where research is devoted to the development of the brain before and after birth and, in particular, an early role in the formation of neuronal activity in human networks and, as an experimental model in newborn rats. The head of this direction is a leading researcher Ph.D. Khazipov RN, Director of Research of the Academy of Medical Sciences of France. Active participation in these studies take students, graduate students and staff of the Department of Human and Animal Physiology  (Professor, Ph.D. Sitdikova GF, Associate Professor, PhD Yakovlev AV, associate professor Gerasimova EV PhD, researcher GR Valeeva, NS Mukhtarov MR, ass. Lebedev YA).Prof GiniatullinRA  guides the studies in neurobiology of pain and Dr Rozov A – neurophysiology of synaptic transmission

In addition, the molecular mechanisms of intra- and intercellular signaling in excitable tissues in health and disease are investigated. Particularly mechanisms of pathological effects in the hyperhomocysteinemiaare studied at cellular and whole-body levels, using electrophysiological methods on ion channels, neuronal networks in vitro and vivo, behavioral tests.   Besides the effects of a new gasotransmitter – hydrogen sulfide are studies in nervous system, heart muscle and gastrointestinal contractility (Professor Ph.D. Sitdikova GF, associate prof. Yakovlev AV, Gerasimova EV, senior teacher Yakovleva OV, assisitances Khaertdinov NN, Shafigullin MU).

    Another area is devoted to the study of the nature of motor pathologies and preventing their development, which is one of the most important and topical areas of medicine and physiology. The research focused on the study of the functional state of the motor centers of the brain and spinal cord motor tract, neuromuscular synapses, the muscles under traumatic injuries of neuro-motor system (spine and spinal cord injury, nerve injury, the limitation of motor function of the muscles), as well as in a breach support afferentation simulating gravity discharge taking place when flying into space (Associate Professor, PhD Baltina TV, Associate Professor, PhD Eremeev A., associate professor, Ph.D. Eremeev AM, ass. Yafarova GG). Psychophysiological studies are also traditional for the department in which we study mechanisms of human adaptation to stress conditions, the learning process (Associate Professor, PhD Baltina T.V.i v. Ven. Zvezdochkin NV)


Main research focus:


1.  Molecular mechanisms of regulation if excitable cells. The role of gaseous messengers.

Since the discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as gaseous signaling molecule two other gases – carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - have been found to be involved in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological functions. The gases have now been summarized under the term “Gasotransmitters”. Gasotransmitters will play an increasingly important role in understanding how electrical signalling into cells and between cells is modulated and fine tuned. Since the gases may affect more than one cell they may modulate a broad range of target cells. Our research is aimed to reveal the effects and the mechanisms of modulation functions of excitable cells by the new class of endogenous molecules - gasotransmitters. We are focusing on the study of peripheral and central synaptic transmission, contractility of heart muscle and smooth muscle of gastrointestinal tract, and ion channels using cell culture of rat GH3 cells. 


Prof. Dr. Guzel Sitdikova

Head of the Department of Human and Animal Physiology

Guzel.Sitdikova@ksu.ru

Dr. Gerasimova   E. V.

+7 843 233-78-15

Gerasimova.EL2011@yandex.ru

Dr. Olga Yakovleva

+7 843 233-78-15

a-olay@yandex.ru

Dr. Alexey Yakovlev

+7 843 2337815

Dr. Nail Khaerdinov

+7 843 233-78-63

Xaertdinov@yandex.ru


2. Neurobiology. Early activity in the developing brain

During development, billions of neurons establish specific synaptic connections to produce our functional thinking brain. Despite considerable evidence indicating the critical role of coordinated neuronal activity in this developmental process, little is known on physiological activity patterns involved in the formation and refinement of the developing neuronal networks. We propose to explore a hypothesis that the activity-dependent plasticity in the developing thalamocortical neuronal networks and formation of the cortical sensory maps is supported by spindle-burst oscillations. We have previously shown that spinle-bursts are transiently expressed and synchronize most of the neuronal activity during so-called “critical” periods of the topographic thalamocortical maps formation. Therefore, we propose to determine cellular and network mechanisms, and physiological roles of spindle-bursts for plasticity in thalamocortical synapses using electrophysiological (extracellular and patch-clamp recordings) and imaging techniques from the somatosensory cortex and relay thalamus of neonatal rat pups in vivo. Consequently, we will verify the principal animal findings in human using electroencephalographic recordings from the premature neonates.

Dr. Rustem KHAZIPOV

Director of Research, DR2 INSERM U901, Marseille, France,

roustem.khazipov@inserm.fr


Prof. Dr. Guzel Sitdikova

Head of the Department of Human and Animal Physiology

Guzel.Sitdikova@ksu.ru

Dr. Guzel Valeeva 

Valeyeva@gmail.ru

Dr. Gerasimova  E.

Gerasimova.EL2011@yandex.ru

Dr. Marat Muchtarov

marat.mukhtarov@gmail.com


3.Mechanisms of motor functions control in health and disease

This theme is devoted to the study of the nature of motor abnormalities and the development of systems of prevention, which is one of the most important and most urgent areas of medicine and physiology. Research in this area is held at the Department of Human and Animal Physiology of the Kazan University for over 20 years. Modern research has focused on the study of the functional state of the motor centers of the brain and spinal cord, motor ways, neuromuscular synapses, muscles in traumatic neuro-motor system (spinal injury, nerve damage, limiting muscle motor function), and in mobility impairments afferentation simulating gravity discharge that occurs during space flight.

Dr. Tatyana Baltina

+7 843 233-78-60

tanusha967@gmail.com

Dr. Aleksandr Eremeev

+7 843 233-78-12

aeremeev@ksu.ru, al.5454@mail.ru

In the present study, functional states of neuromotor systems (spinal motor neuron – muscle) are investigated in the condition of motor function disorder (denervation, Achilles' tendon section, microgravitation). In rats, central mechanisms of contralateral compensatory reactions to unilateral nerve lesion were studied: axon lesion leads to reorganization of motor control towards the increase in contralateral motor center activity via a propriospinal connection. Features of symmetric neuro-muscular systems at all levels were studied in the condition of unilateral deprivation of motor activity. It was found that switching off of one of the extremities out of motor activity causes changes in both ipsi- and contralateral motor centers (spinal motoneurones) and in the periphery (muscle) ones. The main reason of the changes is an actualization of spinal bilateral mechanisms. Under the condition of microgravitation, the motor centers are alterated, thus resulting in alterations in the peripheral component of the motor system. Results of this study confirm a high role bearing afferentation in the control of a functional condition of motor centers.

The data obtained can be used in the development of treatment strategies and techniques that can speed up the recovery of motor control in a wide range of pathological conditions (paresis, plegia, myopathy, etc.), in zero gravity during rehabilitation after space flight. The method of separate testing of skeletal muscle for use in sports and clinical practice, to identify local changes in the muscular system.

- Clinical studies show that the use of electromyographic examination in patients with peripheral nerve injury can select appropriate tactics of surgical treatment. Analysis of patients with arthrosis of large joints showed that the treatment should be aimed at the restoration of functional status as a peripheral (articular muscle) and central (spinal cord neurons) units motor system.