Pluripotent somatic cells can differentiate into all types of adult organism cells, so one of the priority biotechnological tasks today is to differentiate them in vitro with the use of specific cultivation conditions, chemical compounds and protein factors. The genetic reprogramming technology converts somatic cells of the adult organism to pluripotency thus providing wide opportunities for medicine and biology. Reprogrammed somatic cells to so called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), provide researchers with the opportunity to create unique treatment models for the rarest of diseases and to use cells as a therapies.