Kazan Federal University, Kazan, 420008 Russia
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Molecular biomarkers of plant resistance to both individual and combined action of high temperatures (42 ?C) and drought have been identified. For this purpose, correlation between gene expression of four stress proteins (non-photosynthetic malic enzyme (TaNADP-ME2), serine-threonine kinase (W55a), dehydrin (DHN14), and lipocalin (TaTIL)) and resistance of eight spring wheat cultivars has been determined for the first time. Gene expression has been studied using the RT-PCR method based on the content of transcripts on electrophoregrams. The absence of species-specific responses of two genes, TaNADP-ME2 and W55a, the gene activity of which did not depend on the resistance of cultivars to heat shock and water deficit, has been shown. However, gene expression of two other genes, DHN14 and TaTIL, was genotypically determined and positively correlated with the high resistance of particular cultivars. It has been concluded that the activities of DHN14 and TaTIL are potential molecular markers of heat and drought resistance in spring wheat and, therefore, can be used in transgenic selection technologies to create new phenotypes of agricultural crops that would be better adapted to the environmental conditions.
Keywords: Triticum aestivum, various cultivars (genotypes), hyperthermia, water deficit, stress proteins, gene expression
Fig. 1. Electrophoregram of transcripts of TaNADP-ME2, malic enzyme, in leaves of different wheat cultivars: C – control (23 ?С); 1 – heat shock, HS (38 ?С – 30 min, 40 ?С – 30 min, 42 ?С – 2 h); 2 – preadaptation (45 ?С – 15 min + 23 ?С – 2 h) and HS; 3 – drought and HS; 4 – drought, preadaptation, and HS.
Fig. 2. Electrophoregram of transcripts of W55a, serine-threonine kinase, in leaves of different wheat cultivars: C – control (23 ?С); 1 – heat shock, HS (38 ?С – 30 min, 40 ?С – 30 min, 42 ?С – 2 h); 2 – preadaptation (45 ?С – 15 min + 23 ?С – 2 h) and HS; 3 – drought and HS; 4 – drought, preadaptation, and HS.
Fig. 3. Electrophoregram of transcripts of DHN14, dehydrin, in leaves of different wheat cultivars: C – control (23 ?С); 1 – heat shock, HS (38 ?С – 30 min, 40 ?С – 30 min, 42 ?С – 2 h); 2 – preadaptation (45 ?С – 15 min + 23 ?С – 2 h) and HS; 3 – drought and HS; 4 – drought, preadaptation and HS.
Fig. 4. Electrophoregram of transcripts of TaTIL, lipocalin, in leaves of different wheat cultivars: C – control (23 ?С); 1 – heat shock, HS (38 ?С – 30 min, 40 ?С – 30 min, 42 ?С – 2 h); 2 – preadaptation (45 ?С – 15 min + 23 ?С – 2 h) and HS; 3 – drought and HS; 4 – drought, preadaptation, and HS.
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For citation: Khokhlova L.P. Gene expression of stress proteins and identification of molecular markers of plant resistance to high temperatures and drought. Uchenye Zapiski Kazanskogo Universiteta. Seriya Estestvennye Nauki, 2016, vol. 158, no. 2, pp. 225–238. (In Russian)
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