The Nikolai Lobachevsky Scientific Library is a gem of the University. It was started already at the end of the 18th century. During the 200-year history, the library has accumulated over five million volumes, including 150 thousand old and rare units. By the size of its funds, it rates among top ten Russian libraries and ranks third among other Russian universities' libraries. In terms of value and antiquity of certain book and manuscript collections, it is second to just about none.
One of the unique elements of the Library is the Department of Rare Books and Manuscripts. The collection consists of ancient scrolls from the 10th century, some of Europe's first printed books from the 15th century (incunabula), original editions of Russia's first printed books, ancient Oriental rare books and manuscripts – an invaluable part of a written heritage of the peoples of the world.