History. In 1951 professor of KSU Margarita Ilyinichna Belyaeva for the first time in our country began research on a subject "Nucleodepolimerase of bacteria and their effect on tumor growth", having made transition from classical microbiology into the new-born area of the molecular biology. Development of the scientific school created by M. I. Belyaeva continued under the leadership of her scholar, professor Inna Borisovna Leshchinskaya who was the research supervisor of the problem laboratory in 1976 - 2003, and in 1982 - 2003 — the chairman of microbiology department. In 1980 the All-Union interuniversity (interindustrial) program "Nucleases of Microorganisms" started. It was coordinated by Kazan University and I.B. Leshchinskaya was its research supervisor.
Scientists and specialists of 8 higher educational institutions, 13 academic and branch institutes, 3 biochemical preparations plants participated in the implementation of this project. The range of the studied enzymes was expanded at the expense of bacterial hydrolytic enzymes (proteinases, chitinases, phosphatases, etc.), respectively, since 1990 it is the “Enzymes of Microorganisms” program.
Recognition. The school of sciences gained serious official recognition. In 1978 young scientists of problem laboratory became the winners of prize of Komsomol of Tataria named after Musa Dzhalil for a cycle of works "Studying fabric and microbic nucleases in connection with their major functions in an organism". In 1984 the chief committee of Exhibition of Economic Achievements awarded M. I. Belyaeva with "The diploma of honour" and I.B. Leshchinskaya with silver medal for success achieved in development of the national economy of the USSR. In 1987 scientists of Kazan University — M. I. Belyaeva, D. V. Yusupova, B. M. Kurinenko, N. P. Balaban — together with colleagues from a number of the organizations involved in the implementation of the “Nucleases of Microorganisms” project were favoured with the Council of Ministers of the USSR Prize for the development of preparations of microbic nukleodepolimerase and related enzymes for genetic engineering, biotechnology and medicine. The head of school I.B.Leshchinskaya was awarded with the Order of the Red Banner of Labour. In 1996 Professor I.B. Leshchinskaya, PhD in Biology, Senior Researcher L.V. Znamenskaya and Professor S.Yu. Egorov were awarded the prize named after W.A. Engelgardt founded by the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan for their work "Bacterial enzymes: molecular mechanisms of biosynthesis, characteristic and scientific justification of practical application". In 2002 O. N. Ilyinskaya and Senior Researcher A.I. Kolpakov became the winners of award IAPC "Science / Interperiodika" for a cycle of the scientific publications devoted to the regulation of the microorganisms growth.
The research of microbic enzymes in 2000 are included into the joint Russian-American program of the scientific and educational centre "Materials and Technologies of the XXI Century" and for many years are supported by the state contracts within federal scientific and target programs, grants on the international, Russian and republican levels.
Since 2003 the researches on bacterial enzymes are headed by the chairman of microbiology department and the research supervisor of SRL of Biosynthesis and Bioengineering of Enzymes, Professor, the Academician of the Academy of Sciences of RT O.N. Ilyinskaya. Collective work of professors of the department of microbiology O.N. Ilyinskaya, B.M. Kurinenko, M.R. Sharipova "Hydrolase of microorganisms as the potential therapeutic preparations" in 2008 was awarded the State Award of the Republic of Tatarstan in the field of science and technics. The staff of school is indexed as Leading scientific and teaching collective (Them. plan No. 1.4.03).
Collective. In the last 5 years the staff of school is presented by 6 Doctors of science (O. N. Ilyinskaya, B. M. Kurinenko, M.R. Sharipova, F.G. Kupriyanova-Ashina, M. N. Filimonova, R. F. Fakhrullin, Ziganshin A.), 3 of them are awarded with breastplates "The honourable worker of higher education of the Russian Federation", all have diplomas of thanks from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation), 20 candidates of science and 9-12 (annually) postgraduate students.
Directions. Research of enzymes of microorganisms are conducted in two leading directions – in the field of medicine and in the field of biotechnology.
Major results. Main scientific results are received in the field of research of biological activity of ribonuclease and in the establishment of mechanisms of their action for the purpose of development of therapeutic preparations on their basis for oncological diseases and viral infections. Mechanisms of regulation of biosynthesis of microbic proteinases are established. A number of results is connected with the establishment of the genotoxicity of chemical compounds, with the role of nitrogen oxide and the hypometabolic condition of bacteria and the destruction of xenobiotics and the production of biogas.