The Museum was reconstructed from the Natural Science Study, which was stipulated by the University Statutes of 1804. Initially it included zoological, botanic and mineralogical collections kept in the University Library. It was situated in the ground floor of the south-eastern wing of the Main building. However, the collections appeared much earlier.
In the end of the XVIII century Prince G.A.Potyomkin-Tavrichesky planned to establish university in Yekaterinoslavl in accordance with the order of Catherine II. Collections of animals, plants and minerals were gathered for the site of learning. But in 1798 Pavel I ordered to give them to Kazan Gymnasia, which was a basis for Kazan University.
According to the report of 1819 made by adjunct V.I.Timyansky, the Natural Science Study collection consisted of 133 samples of mammals and birds, reptiles and fishes, arthropodals and worms. That collection of non-systematized exhibits marked the beginning of Museum organizing.