Nikolay Nikolaevich Zinin was a professor of Kazan University (1845) and Medicine-surgery Academy in St. Petersburg (1848-1874), academician in technology and chemistry as adjusted to arts and crafts in St-Petersburg Academy of Science, the first Chair of Russian Chemistry Society (1868-1878), a great scientist and innovator, the founder of Kazan School of Chemists and Chemists-Technologists.
He discovered the method of obtaining aromatic amines (Zinin's reaction), and was the first to synthesize aniline (1842) and other aromatic amines by this method. Thus, the foundation for manufacturing synthetic dyes, aromatic compounds, and drugs was laid.
Karl Karlovich Klauss (1796-1864) was non-organic chemist, botanist, drawer, Doctor of Philosophy, (1839), corresponding member of St-Petersburg (1861) and Berlin (1863) Academies of Science. His main scientific works are devoted to the compounds of platinum metals. He discovered the element of ruthenium (1844) studied its properties and defined its atomic mass. He was the first to pay attention to the analogy of between the triads of ruthenium-rhodium-palladium and osmium-iridium-platinum. D.I.Mendeleev counted him among those who made preparations for the periodical system of elements.
A self-disciple, he advanced from a pharmacist's pupil to a chief of a chemical laboratory (1837) and a professor (1839) of Kazan University. He contributed to the establishment of refining industry of platinum metals. He researched the flora of steppes in Zavolje and Prikaspiy, and became one of the founders of analytical phytochemistry.
Alexandr Mikhailovich Butlerov was an organic chemist and Kazan University professor. In 1852-1868, Butlerov actively took up scientific and pedagogic activity in Kazan University. The second part of his professional undertakings (1869-1885) was connected to St-Petersburg University and Imperial St-Petersburg Academy of Science.
A.M.Butlerov gets the credit as the creator of Russian Chemistry School, which was righteously named "Butlerovian". His main contribution to science lay in his creating the theory of organic compounds' construction. According to the theory, the matters' properties are defined by the order of atomic connections in molecules and their mutual influence. He was the first to explain the phenomenon of isomerisation and to highlight the way to knowing the structure and consciously synthesizing new organic compounds. He discovered polymerization of isobutene and obtained some organic compounds, among them being urotropin, a polymer of formaldehyde.
Vladimir Vassil'evich Markovnikov was a versatile scientist, professor, the closest disciple, colleague and follower of A.M.Butlerov. He formulated the rule on the direction of such reactions as substitution, removal, addition by double bonds, and isomerization to depend on chemical structure (Markovnikov's rule) He was the first one to research the composition of Caucasian oils, where he discovered a new hydrocarbon class, naphthenes. He laid the foundation for oil chemistry as an independent science. He introduced a great number of new experimental methods for analyzing and synthesizing organic matters.
V.V.Markovnikov created Moscow Chemistry School and prepared a number of prominent scientists; he contributed to the development of Russian chemical industry and was one of the founders of the Russian Chemistry Society. He organized and took part (singing) in musical Thursdays, and wrote a cycle of works on sanitary chemistry.